Autophagy thesis

Autophagy thesis

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Autophagy: process and function

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Nelson DA, et al.

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The Role of Autophagy in Cancer: Therapeutic Implications

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J Natl Cancer Inst ; Berger Z, et al.

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Role of autophagy in cancer

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A high proportion autpphagy tumours have constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway, which inhibits the induction of autophagy in autophagy thesis to metabolic stress, and many tumours also have defects in apoptosis.

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A common cellular response to metabolic autophagy thesis is cell death by apoptosis, and in tumour cells in particular this apoptosis is crucial to suppressing tumorigenesis ahtophagy FIG.

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Autophagy is essential for neuronal survival.

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Alternatively, Bcl-2 was reported to suppress autophagy by inhibiting cytosolic calcium elevation, which can induce autophagy Hoyer-Hansen et al.

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PLoS Biol ; 7:

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This step is a simple sequestration, and no degradation occurs.

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Autophagy enables stress autophagy thesis Remarkably, autophagy affords cells a resilient capacity for regeneration, whereby restoration of nutrients results in an increase in cell size to that before thewis FIG. Finally, the molecular events that characterize necrotic cell death and their autophagy thesis need to be identified.

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In a colon cancer xenograft autophagy thesis, the addition of CQ to vorinostat was shown to significantly reduce tumor burden and to increase apoptosis

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Stress-induced autophagy in tumor cells can lead to treatment resistance and tumor dormancy, with eventual tumor regrowth and autophagy thesis 4.

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Introduction Macroautophagy hereafter referred autophagy thesis as autophagy is a homeostatic and evolutionarily conserved process that degrades cellular organelles and proteins, and maintains cellular biosynthesis during nutrient deprivation or metabolic stress 1.

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The ability of autophagy inhibition to enhance chemosensitivity and tumor regression has been confirmed in animal models.

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Mutations of synuclien alleles lead to lysosome pH increase and hydrolase inhibition. Targeting autophagy in cancer will provide new opportunities for drug development, because more potent and specific inhibitors of autophagy thesis are needed.

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However, the physiological significance of autophagy regulation by amino acid starvation has not yet been clarified.

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Promoting apoptosis as a strategy for cancer drug discovery.

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One of the mechanisms of programmed cell death PCD is associated with the appearance of autophagosomes autophagy thesis depends on autophagy proteins.

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Inducers of autophagy can stimulate proteosome-mediated degradation of p53 Cellular senescence represents a state of cell cycle arrest maintained by the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p16 Ink4aautophagy thesis Cip1and p27 Kip1 in metabolically viable cells

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These step-dependent functions may allow autophagy to be multifunctional.

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The complex role rhesis autophagy thesis in cancer continues to emerge, and it is important to elucidate the mechanisms by which autophagy influences tumorigenesis as well as treatment response. In this trial, investigators observed a autophagy thesis inhibition of autophagy, as indicated by increases in autophagic vesicles revealed by electron microscopyand detected elevations in LC3-II in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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In contrast, little is known about how useful autophagy is in overcoming chronic starvation.

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Atg4C knockout mice show an increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced fibrosarcomas Marino et al.

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Each step can have a variety autophagy thesis physiological roles, and despite efforts to assign known functions to individual steps, many proposed functions remain to be assigned. Rapamycin alleviates toxicity of different aggregate-prone proteins.

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Mol Cell Biol ;

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The origin of the increased DNA damage in autophagy-defective cells is not yet known. Mol Cancer Ther ; 8: Atg16L is one of two Atg16 homologs and interacts with the Atg12—Atg5 conjugate that is essential for autophagosome formation Mizushima et al. Thus, a necrotic cell fate is a common event in tumorigenesis, and evidence suggests that this alters the tumour—microenvironment interaction, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood.

Cancer and the chemokine network. A French study of nematodes , mice and flies showed that inhibition of autophagy exposed cells to metabolic stress. Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Depletion of total amino acids strongly induces autophagy in many types of cultured cells, but the effects of individual amino acids differ.

The senescence phenotype can be induced by oncogenes, DNA-damaging drugs, or oxidative stress, and their ability to induce senescence is enhanced by functional p53 and Rb tumor suppressor genes These attributes are the reasons why apoptosis defects are selected for in tumours and why restoring the apoptotic response is desirable for cancer therapy.

However, during starvation that persists for several hours, necessary amino acids are produced by autophagy, which is up-regulated as an adaptive response. Functions of autophagy at each step.

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